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1 Miles Corak (2014), “Two facts about the prospects for this generation in an unequal world”, presentation to the Keith Davey Forum on Public Affairs, University of Toronto., based upon data from David Green and Benjamin Sands (2013, Table II).

2 PEPSO. 2013. It’s More than Poverty: Employment Precarity and Household Well-Being.

3 David A. Green and James Townsend. 2014. Drivers of Increasing Market Income Inequality: Structural change and policy. In (eds.) Keith Banting and John Myles. Inequality and the fading of redistributive politics.

4 Cansim Table 282-0001; Grant, Tavia. October 4, 2014. “The 15-hour workweek: Canada’s part-time problemThe Globe and Mail.

5 Statistics Canada. Study: Long-term trends in unionization, 1981 to 2012; David A. Green and James Townsend. 2014. Drivers of Increasing Market Income Inequality: Structural change and policy. In (eds.) Keith Banting and John Myles. Inequality and the fading of redistributive politics. p. 74.

6 Cansim Table 282-0077.

7 Statistics Canada. Study: Long-term trends in unionization, 1981 to 2012; David A. Green and James Townsend. 2014. Drivers of Increasing Market Income Inequality: Structural change and policy. In (eds.) Keith Banting and John Myles. Inequality and the fading of redistributive politics. p. 74.

8 Mowat Centre calculation based on data from Statistics Canada.

9 Statistics Canada. 2010. Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories: 2009 to 2036.

10 World Bank Data. Statistics Canada. Dependency Ratio.

11 Includes both full-time and part-time positions. Cansim Table 282-0002.

12 Statistics Canada. 2014. Portrait of Families and Living Arrangements in Canada; Canada’s Child poverty rate in 2011 was 14.3per cent using the after-tax Low Income Measure. Child poverty has declined according to the after-tax Low-Income Cutoff from 13.4per cent in 1976 to 8.5per cent in 2011. Cansim Table 202-0802.

13 Guest, Dennis. 1999. The Emergence of Social Security in Canada. Third Edition. Dennis Guest. UBC Press: Vancouver.

14 The name of the program was changed from “Unemployment Insurance” to “Employment Insurance” in 1996.

15 Statistics Canada. Table 202-0705

16 Miles Corak. 2014. Two stories about inequality and the middle class. Presented at the 2014 Queen’s University, International Institute on Social Policy Conference, Kingston, Ontario.

17 Miles Corak. 2014. Two stories about inequality and the middle class. Presented at the 2014 Queen’s University, International Institute on Social Policy Conference, Kingston, Ontario. 

18 David A. Green and James Townsend. 2014. Drivers of Increasing Market Income Inequality: Structural change and policy. In (eds.) Keith Banting and John Myles. Inequality and the fading of redistributive politics.

19 OECD Social Expenditure SOCX Data; Peter Hicks. 2008. Social Policy in Canada – Looking Back, Looking Ahead. Queen’s University School of Policy Studies. Working Paper 46.

20 1976 -2012 data from Cansim 276-0001. 2013-14 data from Cansim 276-0022 (up until November 2014). Data seasonally adjusted.

21 Alvin Finkel. 2006. Social Policy and Practice in Canada: A history. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

22 Statistics Canada, 2014.

23 McKinsey & Company, 2012. Are Canadians Ready For Retirement? Current Situation and Guiding Principles for Improvement.

24 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Housing Conditions and Core Housing Need.